Groupthink theory

The theory of groupthink was first developed by the social psychologist Irving Janis in his classic study, Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign-Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, which focused on the psychological mechanism behind foreign policy decisions such as the Pearl Harbor bombingthe Vietnam Warand the Bay of Pigs invasion.

Leaders get more power due to groupthink. Whyte Jr.

characteristics of groupthink

In the second case, President Kennedy made a decision and the people around him supported it despite having their own doubts. When people do not communicate what they have to for betterment of anything, the communication fails and group cohesiveness might also not remain intact.

Groupthink theory

This can be accomplished by dissenting individuals, or a group like a Red Team that is expected to pursue an alternative strategy or goal "for real". Have you ever wondered what your personality type means? The same thing happens in all small situations like a group of students deciding on an academic group project, a team of football players during a match, a board of directors of a company deciding on the future of company, etc. We are not talking about mere instinctive conformity — it is, after all, a perennial failing of mankind. Stereotyped views of out-groups— Out-groups are viewed as enemies and their views are always taken as negative and are ignored. An additional concern mentioned in the research is the derogatory use of the groupthink term as a way to criticize decisions that may not, in reality, be faulty. People who are opposed to the decisions or overriding opinion of the group as a whole frequently remain quiet, preferring to keep the peace rather than disrupt the uniformity of the crowd. Each member should discuss the group's ideas with trusted people outside of the group. Given this, it is important that a decision be evaluated based on the information and process effectiveness at the time the decision was made. It also does not promote people from taking initiatives. As a consequence, those supporting unselected alternatives must make their own individual decision to pursue the chosen solution alternative that in their mind is suboptimal, or even worse, inadequate. The theory of groupthink was first developed by the social psychologist Irving Janis in his classic study, Victims of Groupthink: A Psychological Study of Foreign-Policy Decisions and Fiascoes, which focused on the psychological mechanism behind foreign policy decisions such as the Pearl Harbor bombing , the Vietnam War , and the Bay of Pigs invasion. Some of them included: [8] ,85 "The Japanese would never dare attempt a full-scale surprise assault against Hawaii because they would realize that it would precipitate an all-out war, which the United States would surely win.

A number of factors such as shared illusions and rationalizations contributed to the lack of precaution taken by U. Not all bad decisions are necessarily the result of groupthink, nor do all cases of groupthink end up as failures.

For example, mixing conservatives and liberals in discussions of issues like climate change, or putting judges appointed by presidents from different parties on panels. Groupthink is a concurrence seeking behavior. Tight-knit groups may appear to make decisions better because they can come to a consensus quickly and at a low energy cost; however, over time this process of decision-making may decrease the members' ability to think critically.

history of groupthink theory

The group should invite outside experts into meetings. Breaking up members into smaller independent teams can also be helpful. Give people time to come up with their own ideas first.

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Group decision making problems