An analysis of the origins of female genital mutilation

New York: Routledge, EL and BSD commented and revised the questionnaire. The level of sexual dissatisfaction among circumcised women depends on the types of circumcision.

genital mutilations female countries

A multidisciplinary approach to clitoral reconstruction after female genital mutilation: the crucial role of counselling.

Recently in Egypt Modrek and Liu and in Kenya Achia it was demonstrated that women empowerment, particularly education, significantly affects the likelihood of the daughter becoming circumcised 64 El Dareer A.

female genital mutilations

Others are tetanus infection, infections with hepatitis and human immunodeficiency viruses and also abscess formation 9 The psychosocial consequences include post-traumatic stress disorder PTSDanxiety disorders, panic disorders, inhibition, depression and suppression of feeling and thinking and sometimes attempted suicide 4045 The WHA also commits its member states to follow up and regularly report on a set of points targeting prevention in particular community based interventionslegislation, guidelines and provision of care [ 26 ].

Deinfibulation was available in almost all countries, while clitoral reconstruction and psychological and sexual counselling were available predominantly in countries of migration and then in less than half the countries.

Female circumcision benefits

Data was collected in using a pilot-tested questionnaire from 30 countries 11 countries of origin and 19 countries of migration. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, Africa battles to make female genital mutilation history. Proponents who equate both as being the same argue that they both cause pain and are not medically proven to be beneficial. Female genital mutilation: proposals for change. Female genital mutilation. The corroborated quantitative data was then reanalysed and presented in tables, while clarifying and additional provided data were used to elucidate the different contexts and practices in different countries. It may be performed during gynaecological procedures like cervical biopsy, during delivery or before delivery with the quest to prevent acute intrapartum problems such as obstructed labour or varying types of genital fistulae. Momoh C. The psychosocial consequences include post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD , anxiety disorders, panic disorders, inhibition, depression and suppression of feeling and thinking and sometimes attempted suicide 40 , 45 , The factors that may have contributed to success were being away from a conducive environment for reinfibulation and the health resources of the country of emigration. It is now universally agreed that methods of prevention must be holistic consisting of advocacy, general education especially of women, health education and promotion services, trade substitution ventures for the practitioners and legislation usually as the last resort. World Health Organization. Psychotherapy is extremely helpful for these women; good emotional support will help them overcome much of the challenges they have.

Furthermore, the low level of responses from responsible government departments can be a weakness, as some of the respondents might have lacked a full knowledge of government policy. Cairo, When patients present in acute emergencies, rapid and skillful resuscitation techniques are imperative to keep them alive in addition to limiting medium and long-term complications.

background of fgm

Accessed on: August 1, Up to three reminder e-mails were sent to non-respondents.

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Female genital mutilation/cutting in Africa