Pollution control is therefore an important component of disease control, and health professionals and authorities need to develop partnerships with other sectors to identify and implement priority interventions. The artificial warming of water is called thermal pollution.
One of the few detailed studies of the costs and benefits of air pollution control in a specific urban area Voorhees and others used changing nitric oxide and NO2 emissions in Tokyo during —94 as a basis for the calculations.
The country's level of economic development, local costs, and local benefit valuations will be important for any cost-benefit assessment. Lead and zinc ores usually contain the much more toxic cadmium as a minor component. Managing air pollution interventions involves monitoring air quality, which may focus on exceedances of air quality guidelines in specific hotspots or on attempts to establish a specific population's average exposure to pollution.
Streetlights can confuse newly hatched sea turtles that rely on starlight reflecting off the waves to guide them from the beach to the ocean.
That is one in eight deaths worldwide. The health sector needs to be involved in assessing urban planning, the location of industries, and the development of transportation systems and needs to encourage those designing public transportation and housing to ensure that new sources of air pollution are not being built into cities.
Nevertheless, public health practitioners and decision makers in developing countries need to be aware of the potential health risks caused by air and water pollution and to know where to find the more detailed information required to handle a specific situation. Research is also needed that would link methodologies for assessing adverse health effects with exposure and epidemiological studies in different settings to permit the development of more precise forecasting of the health and economic benefits of interventions.
The cost-effective interventions in the air pollution area could be of value in developing countries as their industrial and transportation pollution situations become similar to the United States in the s.